Chickpea flour is the closest substitute for gram flour. It's made from ground dried chickpeas, just like gram flour, and can be used in a variety of dishes, including batter for frying, thickening sauces, and making flatbreads.
All-purpose flour can work as a substitute for gram flour in many recipes, although it has a different texture and may not provide the same nutty flavor. It's a good option for dishes like thickening sauces, but it's not gluten-free.
Rice flour is a gluten-free option that can be used in place of gram flour for frying, coating, and thickening. It has a more neutral flavor, which can be advantageous in certain recipes.
Almond flour is a gluten-free alternative that works well in recipes where a nutty flavor is acceptable. It's not suitable for all dishes but can be used in baking and coating.
Cornstarch is an effective thickening agent, so it can replace gram flour for thickening sauces and gravies. However, it won't work for recipes that require the unique texture of gram flour in items like pakoras.
Coconut flour is gluten-free and has a slightly sweet and coconutty flavor. It's a good option for certain baked goods, but it may not be suitable for savory dishes.
Potato flour is gluten-free and can be used as a thickener in soups and sauces. It's less common than other flours but can be a suitable replacement for gram flour.
Tapioca flour, or tapioca starch, is a gluten-free option often used as a thickening agent. It's suitable for dishes where you need to achieve a clear and glossy texture, like pie fillings and puddings.